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Abstract: While adaptation has received a fair amount of attention in the climate change debate, barriers to adaptation are the focus of a more specific, recent discussion. In this discussion, such barriers are generally treated as having a uniform, negative impact on all actors. However, we argue that the precise nature and impact of such barriers on different actors has so far been largely overlooked. Our study of two drought-prone communities in rural Ethiopia sets out to examine how female- and male-headed households adapt to climate change, particularly focusing on how a variety of...
This fourth issue of The Little Data Book on Gender presents sex-disaggregated data for more than 200 countries in a straightforward, country-by-country reference on education, health, access to economic opportunities, and public life and decision making.  The report examined the driving forces behind differences in key aspects of welfare between men and women—education and health, access to economic opportunities and productive resources, and the ability to make effective choices and take action. 
This paper summarizes methods to analyze gender-differentiated impacts of climate-smart agriculture (CSA) and aims to enhance the understanding of gender-related determinants of outcomes and facilitate the development of effective interventions that improve gender equality. The introduction explains how the impact of adaptation responses can vary depending on the sex of decision-maker and gender composition of households. Furthermore cultural norms can lead to an uneven distribution of benefits between women and men. Gender-sensitive indicators are therefore required to assess outcomes with...
This study explores some of the challenges and solutions for women’s access to justice in diverse legal systems. It shows that women face structural and cultural barriers to accessing justice – insufficient knowledge of rights and remedies, illiteracy or poor literacy, and lack of resources or time to participate in justice processes. Focusing on legal empowerment as a way to improve both access to justice and the quality of justice women receive, the study presents strategies and best practices in both formal and informal justice systems. Legal empowerment approaches share one core concept: ...
The World Bank Group's new Gender Strategy delineates the support that the Bank Group will provide to client countries and companies to achieve greater gender equality as a key pathway toward lasting poverty reduction and shared security and prosperity. This strategy builds on past achievements and raises the bar on gender equality by focusing on how the Bank Group can move beyond mainstreaming to an approach that identifies outcomes and monitors results of World Bank Group- supported interventions in client countries. The strategy recognizes that job and assets are key levers of change for...
by Nisha Onta, Women Organizing for Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management (WOCAN) On Wednesday 3 December, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Standing Committee on Finance presented a landmark assessment which highlighted that hundreds of billions of dollars of climate finance may now be flowing across the globe annually. However, what is lacking in this assessment and their recommendations is a focus on gender-responsive climate financing instruments and benefit sharing mechanisms. Billions of dollars of finance will not ensure sustainable change in the...
By Jeannette Gurung, Published in Outreach- A multi-stakeholder publication on climate change and sustainable development on Dec 8, Gender Day at COP21 Women’s agency and leadership play a critical and often unrecognised role in climate responses. This is reflected in their knowledge and practices in sustainable natural resources management, in responding to climate-related crises, and their actions as entrepreneurs advancing green technologies and businesses. Gender inequalities that limit women’s access to financial resources, land, education, health and other opportunities also limit their...
The objective of this paper is to identify effective ways to integrate and mainstream gender equality into climate, energy and environment–related policies and programmes, learning from experiences on the ground in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region; and then propose ideas for further work and research. Throughout, women are viewed not only as victims of climate change but as active agents for sustainable development.  The paper particularly draws on the experiences of the UN Women ESA Regional Office (ESARO) and the United Nations Development Programme–United Nations Environment...
Despite increasing evidence that households do not always function as one, policies regarding land and property rights are often formulated at the household level, assuming the primary adult male is the landowner. Because land policy reform has typically focused on changing household, rather than individual, rights to land, many of the data are collected at the household rather than the individual level. As a result of a combination of these factors, securing women’s land rights has remained a largely unaddressed issue by policymakers. So as to inform the formulation of policies and...
This learning brief synthesises lessons drawn from CARE’s Adaptation Learning Programme for Africa (ALP), which has been supporting vulnerable communities in sub-Saharan Africa to adapt to the impacts of climate change since 2010. It is based on evidence and practical experience in implementing community based adaptation (CBA), about gender dynamics and the ways in which CBA can increase adaptive capacity and promote gender equality. It identifies the factors shaping gender dynamics and adaptive capacity and gives examples of how to integrate gender into CBA approaches as well as outlining...

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